Honda Genuine 1-Litre All Season Long Life Radiator Coolant Blue Color, Suitable For All Honda Cars.


Do Not Add Water To This Antifreeze Coolant


Harmful or Fatal If Swallowed.

If Swallowed: Do not induce vomiting. Immediately contact physician.

Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with plenty of cool water while removing contaminated clothing.

Eyes Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of cool water for at least 15 minutes. Do not permit to rub eyes.

Get medical attention immediately in halation. Immediately move victim to fresh air.

If victim has stop breathing get medical attention immediately.

Do not store in open or unlabeled container.

Do not drink antifreeze Coolant or Solution.

Keep Out Of Reach Of Children.

Direction For Use In Honda Vehicles

Caution: Do not remove radiator cao while engine is not.

1-Inspect the cooling system for any leaks, loose connection, worn part of defective hoses. Make all necessary repairs.

2 Drain cooling system with the heater controls in the “On” position. Remove radiator cap and flush cooling system with water. Re-Close all drain cocks or plugs.

3 Loosen the air bleed bolt., then fill the radiator to the filler neck with coolant. Do not add water to this coolant!

Tighten the bleed bolt as soon as the coolant starts to run out in a steady stream without any bubbles.

4 With the radiator cap off start the engine and left it run until warm-up

 Then add any additional coolant needed to bring the level back up to the filler neck. Reinstall the radiator cap.

5 Flush out the reservoir and fill to proper level with coolant. Do not add any water to the coolant!


Disposal of used coolant properly based on the local law and regulations.


Net Content 1L


Difference Between LED Lights COB & SMD


LED lights are constantly improved to bring about better use, greater versatility and more efficient use of power. The different models of LED lights are highly popular compared to traditional incandescent lights, mainly because they can last for about 25 times longer with less energy use.

LED lights come in a variety of models. Start comparing COB vs SMD LED Lights, or before you look at the difference between LED light COB and SMD.

You can choose between SMD vs COB types, for example, depending on your needs for energy efficiency and versatility. The COB vs SMD LED Lights differ in terms of their features and semiconductors.


SMD vs COB: What is SMD?

SMD, or “Surface Mounted Device” LEDs, are the most common LEDs in the market. The LED chip is permanently fused to a printed circuit board, and it’s highly popular due to its versatility. You can find it in light bulbs and string lights, and even in the notification light on your mobile phone.


The SMD LED chips come in a variety of sizes. SMD LED can accommodate chips with complicated designs, like the SMD 5050, which is 5mm wide. The SMD 3528, on the other hand, are 3.5mm wide. The SMD chips are small, almost close to the design of the flat, square computer chip.

One of the distinct features of SMD LED chips is the number of contacts and diodes they have.

SMD LED chips can have more than just two contacts (which makes it different from the classic DIP LED). There can be up to 3 diodes on a single chip, with each diode having an individual circuit. Each circuit would have one cathode and one anode, leading to 2, 4 or 6 contacts in a chip.

This configuration is the reason why SMD chips are more versatile (comparing SMD vs COB). The chip can include a red, green, and blue diode. With these three diodes, you can already create virtually any colour simply by adjusting the output level.

SMD chips are also known to be bright. They can produce 50 to 100 lumens per watt.


SMD vs COB: What is COB?


One of the most recent developments in LED, COB or “Chip on Board” technology is a step forward more efficient energy use.Like the SMD, COP chips also have multiple diodes on the same surface. But the difference between LED light COB and SMD is that COB LEDs have more diodes.

COB chips typically have 9 or more diodes. COB chips also only have 1 circuit and 2 contacts, regardless of the number of the diodes. This simple circuit design is the reason for the panel-like appearance of COB LED light (SMD light, on the other hand, appears like a collection of smaller lights).

But unlike SMD, COB LED lights can’t be used to create colour changing bulbs or lights. This is because there are only 2 contacts and 1 circuit. Multiple channels for adjustment are required to create the colour changing effect. Because of this, COB LED lights are efficient in single-color applications, but not in more versatile technology.

Another aspect of the COB vs SMD LED Lights difference is in the use of energy. COB is known for better lumen-per-watt ratios and heat efficiency. This has a lot to do with the design of COB LEDs, and the cooling ceramic substrate of the chips.

Before, heavy duty technology like spot lights and flood lights made with LED were non-standard, because you’d need multiple LED sources to produce that kind of high lumen output.

But now, COB chips can produce a large amount of lumens with less energy. You can find it in all kinds of bulbs and applications, such as the flash of your mobile phone or point-and-shoot camera. Its range is higher with a minimum of 80 lumens per watt.


Headlights, they are an important aspect of everyday driving. From driving at night, during fog, during storms, or even in broad day light. We’ve come a long way since the first halogen light-bulb was introduced to the common automobile. 


High Intensity Discharage (HID) lighting replaces the filament of a light bul with a capsule of gas. The light emanates an arc discharge between two closely electrodes. This discharge is hermetically sealed inside a samll quartz glass tubular capsule. HID lights require a ballast, whiach carefully regulates the voltage supplied to the capsule of gas. The amount of light produced is greater than a standard halogen bulb while sonsuming less power, this light more closely approximates the color temperature of natural daylight.

High-intensity discharge lamps (HID) produce light with an electric arc rather than a glowing filament. The high intensity of the arc comes from metallic salts that are vapourised within the arc chamber. These lamps are formally known as gas-discharge burners,[by whom?] and have a higher efficacy than tungsten lamps. Because of the increased amounts of light available from HID burners relative to halogen bulbs, HID headlamps producing a given beam pattern can be made smaller than halogen headlamps producing a comparable beam pattern. Alternatively, the larger size can be retained, in which case the xenon headlamp can produce a more robust beam pattern.[original research?]

Automotive HID may be called "xenon headlamps", though they are actually metal-halide lamps that contain xenon gas. The xenon gas allows the lamps to produce minimally adequate light immediately upon start, and shortens the run-up time.

The correlated colour temperature of factory installed automotive HID headlamps is between 4100K and 5000K[c

Some new cars on the market come equipped with the brighter HID xenon lights.  However, if your vehicle lacks this hand feature, an HID conversion kit is available for most makes and models.  HID conversion kits are your ticket to brighter lights which means better visibility and safer driving conditions. 

Normal car lights are halogen, but a popular choice is a xenon HID conversion kit.  HID stands for high intensity discharge.  HID kits produce far brighter lights while using even less energy than traditional halogen bulbs.  Even if your car came with traditional halogen bulbs, xenon HID conversion kits allow virtually any vehicle to convert to improved lighting with minimal work.  Some provide HID output for high and low beams while some only work for one level of lighting.  They are available in a range of colors and anywhere from 35 watts to 90 watts!  You’ll need to know the wattage necessary for your particular vehicle. 

Not only are brighter lights sometimes safer, they also improve the look of your vehicle at night.  5000K or 6000K (white and crystal white) are the most popular colors, but the lights honestly come in a vast variety of colors from pink to blue to yellow.  However, your specific light purpose and driving condition may dictate the color of light your choice.  Yellow lights are better in foggy conditions.  The ultra-bright white lights can hinder your visibility in foggy conditions.  Those ultra-bright lights do illuminate the most road ahead, so they can be especially helpful in dark driving conditions. 


How Car Electric Fuel Pumps Works

What Causes Low Pressure in a Fuel Pump?

The fuel pump takes the fuel from the tank and delivers it to the carburetor or fuel injection system at the required pressure. There may be various reasons for a malfunctioning fuel pump. Issues with the fuel system of a vehicle can be frustrating to no end. Sometimes, even after installing a new pump, the fuel system will not perform up to its standard. In such cases, the new pump is often blamed for not rectifying the issue. However, the actual source of the problem may be outside the fuel pump, preventing it from providing its original performance.

Fuel Pump Motor NZE-120

When the old fuel pump fails, there could be a reason for its failure other than old age. Determining this issue can help to diagnose the actual problem that is hindering the new unit's performance. Some of the common reasons for a decreased fuel performance, despite the fuel pump working fine, are explained below:


Clogged Screen Filter


The screen at the bottom of the fuel pump is the first line of defense against debris from the tank. If the screen filter is clogged, the flow of fuel will be reduced or even stopped. The filter should be cleaned or replaced, if needed.


A clogged screen filter will cause your vehicle to struggle while starting. Other engine problems due to a faulty fuel filter include backfiring, stalling and hesitation. A difficulty while accelerating is also a symptom of a bad fuel filter. A defective filter can allow your car to run smoothly up to a certain speed beyond which it causes a poor acceleration. All in all, a clogged filter will bring down the engine's efficiency.


Incorrect or Shorted Wiring


Since modern pumps are mostly electric, broken wires can cause the fuel pump to stop functioning.


Low Voltage to the Pump


The fuel pump needs a certain amount of voltage to provide an ideal and efficient performance. If the voltage delivered to the pump becomes low, the pump will not deliver the fuel at the requisite pressure. A voltage drop is often due to a bad battery or improperly-installed wires.


Cracked or Clogged Fuel Lines


If the fuel lines are cracked or clogged, the fuel pressure will drop before it reaches the engine. This in turn causes the engine to deliver a poor performance.


Failed Fuel Pressure Regulator


The fuel pressure regulator, as the name signifies, regulates the pressure of fuel delivered to the engine. If the fuel pressure regulator is failing, it may restrict the amount of fuel allowed to enter the fuel rail. This will, in turn, cause the engine to run poorly, thereby degrading the engine's performance.


Defective Fuel Pump Relay


In most cars, the fuel pump is turned on by a fuel pump relay. If the relay goes bad, it will not induce the pump to start functioning. A bad fuel pump relay often causes the engine to crank but prevents it from starting.


Empty Gas Tank


It is necessary to maintain the optimal level of fuel in the tank. If the amount of the fuel in the tank falls below a certain level, or the tank is empty, the car will not start even if all the other components in the system are working properly. Having the gas tank at least half-filled is important when you are installing a new fuel pump.


Checking these issues is a great way to ensure that the problem is being properly addressed. If the above issues are not attended to at the earliest, it can cause the fuel pump or the system to fail completely.



Horns are broadly classified as electric type or air type horns. Electric type horns are compact and efficient, and thus are used widely in ordinary passenger cars. Because air type horns have a large body and require compressed air, their use is restricted to large trucks and so on.


Electric horns can be divided by timbre into two types: the Flat Horn with a sharp and stimulating sound also called Disc Horn, and the Trumpet Shaped Horn with a softer sound also called Snail Horn. Because electric horns are not actuated externally, but instead adopt a mechanical self-excited vibration system, they excel in cost and are widely used.

Electric horns are constructed of a diaphragm that generates sound, an armature (moving attraction part) connected to the diaphragm, a coil to generate the driving force, and a point (contact) that controls the flow of current through the coil. In addition, flat horns also have a vibrator that uses resonance to amplify sound, while trumpet horns use a trumpet to amplify sound in the same way.



How Horn Works
When the horn switch on the steering wheel is pressed, current flows from the battery through the coil, magnetizing the core and generating magnetomotive force.


  • The armature is attracted, and the diaphragm moves.When the armature is attracted to a certain position, it presses the point down, and the contact opens.
  • When the contact opens, current flowing through the coil is interrupted and the attraction disappears. The force of the diaphragm spring returns the armature, and the contact once again closes.
  • This action is repeated approximately 400 times per second to vibrate the diaphragm and generate sound. The number of repeats is termed the fundamental frequency, and this determines the pitch of the sound (tone).


Differences Between A Disc Horn & Snail Horn

Flat Horn /Disc Horn

  • Flat horns use a vibrator to amplify sound according to its resonance.
  • Flat horns are constructed so that the air gap is narrow, and the armature collides with the core. The impact force generated from the collision creates higher harmonic components that resonate at a number of times the fundamental frequency, and this energy excites the vibrator, making it resonate and amplifying the sound pressure.
  • Flat horns amplify by resonating this kind of mechanical collision force, so they have a sharp frequency characteristic and highly efficient amplification, making them the most compact type of horn. In addition, they have a sharp and stimulating timbre that is very effective for warnings


Trumpet Horn / Snail Horn

  • Trumpet horns use the resonance of a trumpet to amplify sound.
  • Because there is no need for the armature and core to collide as in a flat horn, trumpet horns have a wide air gap. The repeated vibrations of the diaphragm are converted to sound in the air chamber, and these sounds amplify as they resonate along the length of the trumpet.
  • In contrast to the sharp peak frequency characteristic of flat horns, trumpet horns have wide and gradual frequency components, resulting in a soft-timbered sound
Cover Computer Engine Control For Corolla

It is highly recommended for every car owner to install Computer Cover on the Computer Engine Control (ECU) under the hood in the latest models of Corolla & Vitz. Whereas the previous model had its Computer Engine Control installed in the driver’s cabin so it can be kept cool and out of harms way but I guess cost cutting made them put this vulnerable and costly item here in the engine bay.


ECU W/O Computer Cover

Its advised to all new corolla owners or owners of those vehicles with exposed Computer Engine Control (ECU ) under the Hood to get it as early as possible. Computer Engine Control already have a slot to get the cover bolted over it.

Corolla 2016 Computer Cover


Computer Cover protect ECU From Water During Car Wash & Heat Generated By Engine Inside The Hood. 

ECU After Install Computer Cover

You Can Buy Online From In A Very Reasonable Price.


Tail Light Lens Replacement.

Tail Light Lens Replacement Cost?


It depends on the type of car you drive and the auto repair shop you go to. 

CarLabor CostParts CostEstimateAverage Back Light PriceSavings
Honda/Toyota200-400 Rs400-1500 Rs600-1900 Rs3000 Rs65%


Broken Back Lamp Lens

A tail light lens is the colored piece of plastic that covers the light bulb on a vehicle’s tail light. Different colored lights have different meanings, so it’s important that the proper lens cover the light bulbs, which emit white light. When white light shows through a broken or cracked tail light lens, people following the vehicle may not realize that a car is slowing or stopping. Mostly vehicles may have glass lenses.


What common symptoms indicate you may need to replace the Tail Light Lens?

  • When a vehicle has a broken or missing tail light lens, other drivers may not realize that the vehicle is slowing down which can cause accidents.
  • Broken tail light lens.
  • Cracked tail light lens.
  • Missing tail light lens.

City 2009 Tail Lamp Lens GM1



Steps to Replace a Tail Light Lens

The following steps outline the procedure for replacing a tail light lens. While every make and model is different, drivers that tailor this process to their own car should be able to swap out their lens without a problem.


Step 1: Unscrew the Tail Light Assembly From Vehicle.

This step differs depending on the type of vehicle and the year in which it was built. For example, many cars, trucks, and SUVs built before 1990 have external screws on the tail lights that are easily identified from the outside. Modern vehicles typically have a more seamless look, and the screws are located underneath the hood on the car frame, in the interior of the car on the other side of the tail lights. Compact cars usually have screws in the trunk area, and on trucks, the screws are on the inside of the tailgate. Regardless of the type of vehicle, the first step is to locate the fasteners that hold the lens in place and unscrew them. This can be accomplished with a brief search around the tail light itself. Make sure to keep these screws in a safe place once they are removed.

Step 2: Remove the Bulb Sockets.

Remove the sockets from the back of the tail lights by twisting them counterclockwise. This should free the tail light assembly from the vehicle and prepare it for removal.

Step 3: Separate The Old Lens From The Assembly.

After inspecting the assembly and determining that the lens is the only damaged part, remove it from the rest of the tail light. On most vehicles, the lens is attached by several thumb nuts or small retaining screws and should pull away from the assembly freely once these are loosened.

Step 4: Insert The New Lens Into The Tail Light Assembly.

Carefully press the new tail light lens against the rubber gasket in the assembly and push it back into the mounting assembly on the rear of the vehicle. Tighten the retaining screws or thumb nuts to hold it in place.

Step 7: Secure The Assembly Into The Vehicle.

Tighten the screws and replace the bulb sockets on the back of the tail light assembly. Make sure to turn the sockets counterclockwise until they lock into place. If necessary, push the trunk trim back to its original position and then close the trunk.


All About Car Windscreen Wipers Blades And Rubbers

Windscreen Wipers

About Wipers, Rubbers and Blades

Windscreen wipers are very important for safe driving, especially at night. They are designed to effectively remove moisture and dirt from the front and rear windscreen, providing a clear view for the driver.

However, the soft rubber inserts are vulnerable to wear and tear from the elements and can be literally worn out with use. Contaminants and adverse conditions on the road can accelerate rubber deterioration, often resulting in chattering and streaking across the windscreen. Lack of use, due to storage or driving in dry climates can leave the rubber on the windscreen wipers cracked and brittle. The same applies to headlamp wipers too, and all rubber inserts should be checked regularly and changed when necessary.

Signs you may need to replace your windscreen wipers:

  • Chattering or streaking across the windscreen
  • Cracks or brittleness on the wiper
  • Smearing on the windscreen after use

Wipers and Washer

Windscreen Wipers

Genuine Wipers  have been designed especially for your car. When you get your car serviced by technicians, they will know to check the condition of the wiper blades and its rubber inserts.

To ensure maximum windscreen cleanliness, use the Windscreen Washer Additive. Giving the rubber blade a regular wipe with tissue will also help to clean off the build-up of grease and grime. This will help to maintain a clear view through the windscreen and keep your wipers working longer.

Brake Pads Noise

Do Your Brakes Squeak?

Any squeak in your vehicle can be annoying, especially if it continues to get worse and you do nothing about it. Here are four common types of squeaks that come from the brakes—common problems that come through the shop everyday—plus a fifth (bonus) brake noise, a scraping noise. I hope I can help you understand what's causing your brakes to squeak.

Two Types of Brakes

To make this discussion clearer I'll tell you that there are two types of brakes. Most brakes today are disc brakes, where a pad presses against a disc or rotor to stop the car. The first three squeaks described here come from disc brakes. Many cars have drum brakes on the back wheels, where a curved “shoe” presses against a hollow drum to stop the car. The last squeak here is made by drum brakes.

Getting rid of an annoying brake squeal and other disc brake noise is like trying to cure a bad case of herpes. You can treat the symptoms and improve the patient's condition. But it is virtually impossible to eliminate the underlying cause. Fortunately, brake noise is not caused by a virus. It is caused by a combination of factors that sometimes add up to create noise.

Brake squeal is really a high frequency vibration. In disc brakes, it can be caused by vibrations between the pads and rotors, the pads and calipers, or the calipers and their mounts. In the photo above, the noise produced by a brake rotor in a test lab has been captured electronically and converted into a color graphic. The red areas are producing the loudest noise while the green areas are producing the least noise.

In drum brakes, the vibrations can originate between the shoes and drums, or between the shoes and backing plates.

We can't say why brake noise is so annoying. It just is. To some people, it has the same effect as scraping your fingernails across a blackboard. They can't stand it, even if it is "normal" for many vehicles today. Most people want nice, quiet brakes that stop smoothly with a reassuring "shhhhh" sound. No scraping noises. No high pitched squeals that would make a dog howl. No concerned looks or stares from passengers, other motorists or nearby pedestrians who wonder if the vehicle is going to stop or not.

Disc brake noise can also be worrisome to many people because they fear something is wrong with their brakes and their vehicle might not be safe to drive. Noise may indicate trouble, but the only way to know for sure is to inspect the brakes. If you find nothing amiss (no worn linings, or loose, damaged or missing parts), then you can try any or all of the following measures to deal with the noise problem:

  • Dampen the pads
  • Lubricate the calipers
  • Replace the caliper hardware (slides, pins or bushings)
  • Replace the pads
  • Resurface the rotors
  • Clean the brakes (drums)




One way to quiet noisy pads is to make sure the pads fit tightly in the calipers. If the pads on a single piston caliper have mounting ears or tabs that need to be bent or hammered to hold the pad in position, make sure the pad can't be wiggled by hand. If the pads have clips, shims or antirattle springs, make sure the necessary hardware is in place and properly installed. If you see no such items when you inspect the brakes, do not assume that none are needed. The last guy who worked on the brakes may have left them off. It is always a good idea to look up an illustration or parts list for the brake system to make sure all the required parts are there.

If the pads are installed correctly but are still noisy, one of the least expensive and most effective ways to quiet them is to remove the pads and install insulator shims on the backs of the pads. The shims, which are usually self-adhesive, act like little seat cushions to dampen vibrations between the pad and caliper.

Another option is to apply a noise suppressing compound to the backs of the pads. Some compounds harden to a rubber-like consistency to cushion the pads. Another good choice is to apply a moly-based brake lubricant to the backs of the pads. Brake lubricant is long lasting and won't burn or wash off like brake grease can. If applying a lubricant to the backs of the pads, be careful not to get any on the front side of the pads or rotor!


The same approach can be used on the calipers. Cleaning and lubricating the caliper mounts can also help dampen vibrations to quiet the brakes. Vibrations here can be caused by worn or loose mounts or mounting hardware.

If the calipers are badly rusted or worn, they may have to be replaced. But in most instances, you can probably clean them up, lubricate the mounting points and return them to service. You may have to replace the caliper slides, pins, clips and/or bushings, though, if there is too much play or looseness between the caliper and knuckle. Be sure to use a high temperature brake grease so the grease stays where it belongs.


Some disc brake pads are noisy than others. Semimetallic pads are typically the ones that cause the most noise problems because they are harder than nonasbestos organic (NAO) pads. Their high metallic content often makes them squeal when metal rubs against metal.

The amount and type of fillers and binders in a friction material can make a big difference in the amount of noise a given set of pads or shoes produce. Ingredients such as graphite, carbon and "rubber modifieds" may be added to reduce noise. Brass is another ingredient that helps dampen noise (it also has a cleaning effect on drums and rotors). Many of the newest pads designed for quiet operation use a nonmetallic "ceramic-enhanced" formula to eliminate noise.

The design of the pads themselves can also affect the amount of noise produced. A chamfered leading edge on the pads eliminates the sharp edge so the pads will slide across the rotor without grabbing and vibrating. Slotting the pads changes the frequency at which the pads oscillate so noise can be tuned out of the brake system.

Some pads also have a special coating that transfers to the rotor surface when the pads are first used. The coating material leaves a film on the rotor that reduces noise, vibration and also rotor wear. The transfer film also makes the pads less sensitive to variations in the surface finish on the rotors.

If the original pads are too noisy and can't be quieted by insulator shims, noise compound or grease, therefore, replacing them may be the only way to get rid of the noise.

worn brake pads
These brake pads are completely worn out.
Brake pads should never be allowed to wear down to bare metal as this will also ruin your rotors.


Some brands and grades of aftermarket brake linings are quieter than others. So you may have to experiment with several different ones to find the quietest set for a given application. But whatever you do, do not substitute asbestos or nonasbestos organic (NAO) pads for semimetallic pads unless the friction material supplier says it is okay to do so. Asbestos and NAO do tend to be quieter than semimetallics but can't withstand the heat that semimetallics can. Consequently, if you swap asbestos or NAO for semimetallics in a front-wheel drive car or minivan where the brakes run hot, it can reduce the life of the linings significantly (up to half or more!) and increase the risk of overheating and brake fade.

After you have installed the new pads, it is a good idea to break them in (unless the pads are the "fully cured" type that do not require an initial break-in period). Not breaking in a new set of pads increases your risk of pad glazing and brake noise. A driver can glaze and ruin a new set of pads if he fails to go easy on the brakes for the first 200 miles. If he overheats the brakes by mashing down on the brake pedal at every stop light, he can cook the resin in the pads before it can cure and glaze the pads.


Pads that require an initial break-in can usually be seated by making 20 to 30 easy stops from about 30 mph with at least 30 seconds between brake applications so the brake pads have enough time to cool.

Whether a new set of brake pads need to be broken-in or not, you should still test drive the vehicle to make sure the brakes are operating properly and that your efforts to eliminate the noise problem have been successful.


Click for Brake Guide info

In addition to replacing the brake pads, it may be necessary to resurface the rotors to cure a noise problem. To brake quietly, the rotors have to be in good condition, relatively smooth and flat. So if the rotors are rough, glazed or have not been finished properly, they'll have to be resurfaced.

How smooth do the rotors have to be? OEM requirements vary, but generally speaking a surface finish that ranges anywhere from 15 to 80 microinches should be acceptable, though GM recommends a surface finish of 60 microinches or less. A smooth finish will reduce the risk of brake noise and brake squeal.

Unfortunately, there is no easy way to measure surface finish short of buying an electronic "surface profilometer," a device which drags a calibrated stylus across the surface to measure roughness. Profilometers are expensive and nobody except brake part and equipment suppliers can afford to buy them. So the next best way to check your work is with a "surface comparator gauge." This type of gauge, which is available from machine shop suppliers as well as some gasket manufacturers, generally costs less than $50 and has sample patches on a metal plate that you feel or scratch with your fingernail to compare finishes.

Another way to check the surface finish on a rotor is the ball point pen test. Write you name on the rotor. If the ink leaves a continuous line, the surface is smooth enough. But if the ink line is broken up into dots, the surface is too rough (or coated with grease!).

How the brake rotors are resurfaced does not matter as long as they end up with a high quality smooth finish. Bench lathes and on-car lathes are both capable of high quality finishes when used properly. But both require sharp tooling and the right feed rate and spindle speed or drive speed to produce a good finish that resists brake noise. For best results, many experts recommend using round lathe bits. These will produce a smoother finish (up to twice as smooth as a new rotor!).

If the crossfeed rate is too high, the lathe bit can groove the rotor like a phonograph record. There will be too much space between the peaks and valleys on the surface of the rotor making it unacceptably rough and noisy. What you want are narrow peaks and valleys. This may require you to slow down the crossfeed rate or adjust the spindle or drive speed (if possible).

Specific operating recommendations will vary with the type of equipment you are using, but if you are turning rotors on a lathe with a fixed spindle speed (100 rpm) and a fixed crossfeed rate of .003 in. per revolution, you should get a suitable finish. On lathes with adjustable spindle speed and crossfeed, a speed of 100 rpm with a crossfeed of .002 to .008 in. should give satisfactory results. A silencer band or vibration dampening attachment should be used while turning the rotor to eliminate tool chatter.

After the rotors have been turned, you can sand them with #150 grit sandpaper to smooth the surface finish. Press two sanding blocks against both sides of the rotor while it is turning slowly on a bench lathe for about 60 seconds. Or, you can do the same thing with a "Flex-Hone" tool for rotors made by Brush Research Manufacturing. The flexible beaded abrasive on the Flex-Hone tool works better than an abrasive pad in a drill. The key point here is to achieve an EVEN surface finish with no high spots or low spots on the rotor.

A final step that is often overlooked but is just as important as any of the others just mentioned is to clean the rotors after they have been turned. Use warm soapy water and a stiff brush. Aerosol brake cleaner is NOT as effective and won't remove metallic debris that can become embedded in the new pads you have just installed. To check cleanliness, wipe a clean white raga across the surface of the rotor. If you see any gray streaks on the rag, the rotors are NOT clean.

To reduce the risk of brake noise during pad break-in, there are aerosol "brake silencing treatments" that can be applied to rotors to help suppress noise. These are spray-on coatings that are applied to the rotors after they have been resurfaced. Some contain microfine aluminum particles, graphite and moly that fill in the valleys on the surface of the rotors and act as a temporary lubricant to help the new pads burnish in more gradually. This not only reduces brake noise but also helps the pads develop a better cure which actually increases the coefficient of friction slightly, according to one supplier of this type of product.


One of the leading causes of brake squeal in drum brakes is brake dust inside the drum. Removing the drum and cleaning the brakes, therefore, may be necessary to eliminate this kind of noise. Use an aerosol brake cleaner or brake washer to clean the brakes. Never, ever blow out the drums with compressed air because doing so blows zillions of microscopic fibers into the air, which you certainly want to avoid if the vehicle has asbestos linings.

Another cause of brake noise in drums is poor contact between the shoes and drum. Heel and toe contact between the shoe and drum is often the culprit, and the cure is to either replace the shoes with new ones or to resurface the drum slightly to increase its inside diameter. New shoes are ground with a slight eccentric to compensate for drum wear. This moves the point of contact away from the ends of the shoes toward the middle. In the old says, mechanics used to arc shoes to match their shape to the drum. But with the concerns about asbestos, shoe grinding is pretty much a thing of the past (though it might make a comeback if and when asbestos is totally out of the picture).

Other causes of drum noise can include weak or loose hardware (replace it), and vibrations between the shoes and the raised pads on the backing plates (apply brake grease).

Battery Maintenance

Battery Maintenance

Battery Maintenance is an important issue. The battery should be clean. Cable connection needs to be clean and tightened. Many battery problems are caused by dirty and loose connections. Serviceable battery needs to have the fluid level checked regularly and only at a full charge. The fluid level will always be higher at a full charge. Distilled water is best; tap water is loaded with chemicals and minerals that are harmful to your battery, but not as bad as no water. Don't overfill battery cells especially in warmer weather. The natural fluid expansion in hot weather will push excess electrolytes from the battery. To prevent corrosion of cables on top post batteries, use a small bead of silicon sealer at the base of the post and place a felt battery washer over it. Coat the washer with high temperature grease or petroleum jelly (Vaseline). Then place cable on post and tighten, coat the exposed cable end with the grease. Most folks don't know that just the gases from the battery condensing on metal parts cause most corrosion.


Battery Testing

To measure specific gravity buy a temperature compensating hydrometer at an auto parts store. To measure voltage, use a digital D.C. Voltmeter.


You must first have the battery fully charged. The surface charge must be removed before testing. If the battery has been setting at least 6 hours you may begin testing. To remove surface charge the battery must experience a load of 20 amps for 3 plus minutes. Turning on the headlights (high beam) will do the trick. After turning off the lights you are ready to test the battery.


State of ChargeSpecific GravityVoltage - 12VVoltage - 6V


* Sulfation of Batteries starts when specific gravity falls below 1.225 or voltage measures less than 12.4 (12v Battery) or 6.2 (6 volt battery). Sulfation hardens the battery plates reducing and eventually destroying the ability of the battery to generate Volts and Amps.

Load testing is yet another way of testing a battery. Load test removes amps from a battery much like starting an engine would. A load tester can be purchased at most auto parts stores. Some battery companies label their battery with the amp load for testing. This number is usually 1/2 of the CCA rating. For instance, a 500CCA battery would load test at 250 amps for 15 seconds. A load test can only be performed if the battery is near or at full charge.

The results of your testing should be as follows.

  • Hydrometer readings should not vary more than .05 difference between cells in a strong healthy battery.
  • Digital Voltmeters should read as the voltage is shown in this document. The sealed AGM and Gel-Cell battery voltage (full charged) will be slightly higher in the 12.8 to 12.9 ranges. If you have voltage readings in the 10.5 volts range on a charged battery, which indicates a shorted cell.

When in doubt about battery testing, call the battery manufacturer. Many batteries sold today have a toll free number to call for help.


Selecting and Buying a New Battery

Selecting a Battery, when buying a new battery I suggest you purchase a battery with the greatest reserve capacity or amp hour rating possible. Of course the physical size, cable hook up and terminal type must be a consideration. You may want to consider a Gel-Cell or an Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) rather than a Wet Cell; if the battery is not or can not receive regular maintenance, as it should. This is a hard call, because there is very little that substitutes for maintenance.


Be sure to purchase the correct type of battery for the job it must do. Remember an engine starting battery and deep cycle batteries are different. Freshness of a new battery is very important. The longer a battery sits and is not re-charged the more damaging sulfation build up on the plates. Most batteries have a date of manufacture code on them. The month is indicated by a letter 'A' being January and a number '4' being 2004. C4 would tell us the battery was manufactured in March 2004. Remember the fresher the better. The letter "i" is not used because it can be confused with #1.


Battery Life and Performance

Battery life and performance, average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements increase. Two phrases heard most often are "my battery won't take a charge and my battery won't hold a charge". Only 30% of batteries sold today reach the 48-month mark. In fact 80% of all battery failure is related to sulfation build-up. This build up occurs when the sulfur molecules in the electrolyte (battery acid) becomes so deeply discharged that they begin to coat the batteries lead plates. Before long the plates become so coated the battery dies. The causes of sulfation are numerous, let me list some for you.


  • Batteries sit too long between charges. As little as 24 hours in hot weather and several days in cooler weather.
  • Battery storage, leaving a battery sit without some type of energy input.
  • Deep cycling engine start battery, remember these batteries can't stand deep discharge.
  • Undercharging of battery, to charge a battery let's say 90% of capacity will allow sulfation of battery using the 10% of battery chemistry not reactivated by the incomplete charging cycle.
  • Heat of 100+°F, increases internal discharge. As temperatures increase so does internal discharge. A new fully charged battery left sitting 24 hours a day at 110 degrees F for 30 days would most likely not start an engine.
  • Low electrolyte level, battery plates exposed to air will immediately sulfate.
  • Incorrect charging levels and settings. Most cheap battery chargers can do more damage than help.
  • Cold weather is hard on the battery the chemistry does not make the same amount of energy as a warm battery. A deeply discharged battery can freeze solid in sub zero weather.
  • Parasitic drain is a load put on a battery with the key off.


Battery Charging


Battery charging, remember you must put back the energy you use immediately, if you don't the battery sulfates and that affects performance and longevity. The alternator is a battery charger; it works well if the battery is not deeply discharged. The alternator tends to overcharge batteries that are very low and the overcharge can damage batteries. In fact an engine starting battery on average has only about 10 deep cycles available when recharged by an alternator. Batteries like to be charged in a certain way, especially when they have been deeply discharged. This type of charging is called 3 step regulated charging. Please note that only special SMART CHARGERS using computer technology can perform 3 steps charging techniques. You don't find these types of chargers in parts stores and Wal-Marts. The first step is bulk charging where up to 80% of the battery energy capacity is replaced by the charger at the maximum voltage and current amp rating of the charger. When the battery voltage reaches 14.4 volts this begins the absorption charge step. This is where the voltage is held at a constant 14.4 volts and the current (amps) decline until the battery is 98% charged. Next comes the Float Step, this is a regulated voltage of not more than 13.4 volts and usually less than 1 amp of current. This in time will bring the battery to 100% charged or close to it. The float charge will not boil or heat batteries but will maintain the batteries at 100% readiness and prevent cycling during long term inactivity. Some AGM batteries may require special settings or chargers.